Ubuntu 9.10 won't boot

Things went south this time and I'm unable to understand it or fix it. This is the end of the message and the beginning is below.
"No init found. Try passing init= bootarg.
Busybox v1.13.3 (ubuntu 2:1.13.3 3 ubuntu7) built in shell (ash) ? 'this was not (bash)'
enter 'help' for a list of built in commands
(initramfs) _ [blinking cursor]”

I'm using a home built K7S5A ver. 1 with Athlon XP 1700+ and 1gb ram. PSU is 400+ and the give is all is aging.
I have a Seagate 20gb ATA100 drive in it that I picked up at garage sale and used it for 6 months. I've got Ubuntu 9.10 on it solo with all updates current. The last few months have been getting a lot of automatic file system checks and some times had to do them manually as well and some repairs done at the Debian screen that would pop up during boot. Some times I would get mfm and rll messages too with not being able to boot but I think that was from cabling vibrating loose or sometimes left off or not complete connection when switching drive connections going back and forth to other versions/distros.
Sorry if I can't remember all the details. This last time pc with Seagate drive was in use was yesterday the mouse locked on screen while trying to use a Genealogy JAVA program and I couldn't remedy situation so I rebooted and got this message.
Also had to switch drive connections to be able to write this. Currently using Ubuntu 9.04 on IBM Deskstar 20gb also a previously owned drive. This drive was having some boot issues too but I don't have a detailed log of what it was doing other than MFM and RLL and possible cable connection problems.
The end of the message that I'm getting for the Seagate looks like this in quotes below. I copied by hand and switched drive connections and booted to here and typed in this message:

“mount: mounting /dev/disk/ by-uuid/dc 8f8ec9-0852 -4f7c-bc-02-26906d185d0 on/root failed invalid argument.
Mount:mounting /sys on /root/sys failed: no such file or directory
target file system doesn't have /sbin/init.
No init found. Try passing init= bootarg.

Busybox v1.13.3 (ubuntu 2:1.13.3 3 ubuntu7) built in shell (ash) ? {'this was not (bash)'}
enter 'help' for a list of built in commands
(initramfs) _ [blinking cursor]”

Sorry I'm command line challenged due to dementia as far as being able to think and do myself, but can copy and paste, and would appreciate help if it's available. I also may have missed a space, letter, or capitalization in the above too. I'm trying at least and Linux makes so much more sense than the alternatives. Thank goodness for spell checkers or this would not be understandable. Please,
What has happened and can it be fixed without reinstall or throwing drive away? Again I apologize for not being Linux literate or command line proficient but I lost part of my brain function with a car accident and a later chemical injury and just do the best I can when I can. Thanx %:)~SW
One final comment tho' the drive I'm now in with Ubuntu9,04 seems way less problematic FWIW.
We'll see how 10.04 treats me! Love playing and working with Ubuntu. 10+yr Linux user!!!

Ubuntu 9.10 won't boot ~ update

Did a little searching the net and found some links that basically said to boot to Ubuntu 9.10 Live cd and open terminal and type in "sudo fsck -y /dev/sda1" excluding the quotemarks [mind you the sda1 could be different for you as this is the drive ID for where the installation is {could be sda2 or sda3 etc.}] hit enter and wait for a response. Mine happened to be the Debian repair screen and I chose to repair the last kernel update. I had to log in manually at the prompt after ward using user name and password and then startx to start GUI. But all seems to be working now.
Will post again if otherwise.

Thanks for this info

It helped me recover a system that had stopped booting up. Apparently it had some bad sectors and your method found and fixed them.